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Aaron T. Beck

Prisoners of Hate

An excellent article Beck wrote about his view of the “mind of terrorists” following the 9/11/2001 attack on the World Trade Center.

Beck, A.T. (2001). Prisoners of Hate: The Mind of the Terrorists. Excerpt from a letter Dr. Beck sent to the Academy of Cognitive Therapy ListServ. Reprinted here with permission of the author.

Aaron T. Beck

Beck – A Man of Curiosity

“Beck has changed the world. I am
one of many who benefited tremendously from his curiosity, kindness and
courage to seek and follow the data.”
-C. Padesky

Padesky, C.A. (2013). Aaron T. Beck, a Man of Curiosity. The National Psychologist, July/August, p. 12.

Aaron T. Beck

Mind, Man, and Mentor: an overview of Beck’s career to date in three broad areas:

Includes Padesky’s personal commentaries based on observations of Beck since 1978

Padesky,  C.A. (2004) Aaron T. Beck: Mind, Man, and Mentor. Contemporary Cognitive Therapy: Theory, Research, and Practice (Ed.).

Aaron T. Beck

The Science and Philosophy of Beck as compared to Ellis and REBT

Highlights similarities and important differences between Beck’s Cognitive Therapy and Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

Padesky, C.A., & Beck, A.T. (2003). Science and Philosophy: Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 17(3), 211-224.

(Aaron T. Beck)
Collaboration and Guided Discovery

Primary features of Beck that remained central to his work.

Read about their early development. Conversations with Beck reveal how his own life may have influenced their inclusion and importance in his therapy.

Padesky, Christine A. (2022). Collaboration and Guided Discovery. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice,

Collaborative Case Conceptualization

Excellent for every clinician seeing clients

  • COURSE USE: serves as a supplemental text in graduate-level CBT courses and clinical practica
  • AUDIENCE: Practitioners, students, and residents in clinical psychology, psychiatry, counseling, social work, and related mental health fields
  • LISTEN to an INTERVIEW with all 3 AUTHORS (on publisher’s website)
  • READ the FIRST CHAPTER for FREE (online,  courtesy of the publisher Guilford Press)
  • More details on Amazon
  • Get Kindle book on Amazon – get immediate access
  • Purchase EPUB version from Guilford Press

Kuyken, W, Padesky, C A, & Dudley, R (2009). Collaborative case conceptualization: Working effectively with clients in cognitive-behavioral therapy. New York: Guilford.

Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Client Knows Best

Journal Article

Padesky illustrates how to create a collaborative case conceptualization using two different models:



The PDF file was updated on February 3, 2021 to include Figures 1 and 2 at the end of the document. Make sure you use the updated version. 

Padesky, C.A. (2020). Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Client Knows Best. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. [available online 23 July 2020]

Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Science and Practice

Journal Article

A new approach to case conceptualization.

Kuyken, Padesky, and Dudley, advocate therapists navigate clinical and conceptualization challenges using three guiding principles:

  1. collaborative empiricism
  2. evolving levels of conceptualization
  3. incorporation of client strengths

Kuyken, W., Padesky, C.A., & Dudley, R. (2008). The Science and Practice of Case Conceptualization. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(6), 757-768. doi:10.1017/S1352465808004815

Collaborative Case Conceptualization

Assessing competence in collaborative case conceptualization

Preliminary results indicate that the CCC-RS is a reliable measure with
adequate face, content and convergent validity. Further research is needed to replicate and extend the current findings to other facets of validity.

Kuyken, Beshai, Dudley, Abel, Görg, Gower, McManus, & Padesky. (2016). Assessing Competence in Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Development and Preliminary Psychometric Properties of the Collaborative Case Conceptualization Rating Scale (CCC-RS). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(2), 179-192. doi:10.1017/S1352465814000691
Published online: 28 January 2015

Collaborative Case Conceptualization


Available from our Clinical Tools page

Developed by Kuyken, Padesky and Dudley (2009) in their book Collaborative Case Conceptualization: Working Effectively with Clients in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. The rating scale and manual are copyrighted items that are available for personal use by supervisors, researchers, instructors, and therapists.

case conceptualization
Clinical Tip


Presenting the Cognitive Model to Clients

 The connection between thoughts, feelings, behavior, biology and environment provides one model for understanding why changes in thoughts and behavior can help even problems with biological or environmental components.

Padesky, C.A. & Mooney, K.A. (1990) Presenting the cognitive model to clients. International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 6, 13-14.

* also published in 1st and 2nd Editions of Mind Over Mood


Apply Client Creativity to Recurrent Problems: Construct Possibilities and Tolerate Doubt.

Encourages the use of client creativity to produce new rules for living that support and maintain a client’s new vision of being and feeling. Ambiguity and doubt are critical ingredients in creative change.

Mooney, K.A., & Padesky, C.A. (2000). Applying client creativity to recurrent problems: Constructing possibilities and tolerating doubt. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 14(2), 149-161.

Clinical Tip

When Pleasure is Hard to Find

Talks about clients who have had particularly harsh lives and are now embedded in very difficult life circumstances.

Padesky, C.A. (2013, September). When pleasure is hard to find. Blog posting on


Learn when it might be necessary to address perfectionism in depression treatment

View online to read the article in an Enhanced PDF format.

Hawley, L.L., Rappaport, L.M., Padesky, C.A., Hollon, S.D., Mancuso, E., Laposa, J.M., Brozina, K., & Segal, Z.V. (2022). Self-critical perfectionism, dependency and entropy during cognitive behavioural therapy for depression. British Journal of Clinical Psychology 00, 1-18.

Clinical Tip

Use the Sharpest Tool in the Box

Depending on the level of thought we are working with, we need to use different interventions. Padesky discusses thought records, behavioral experiments, core beliefs

Padesky, C.A. (2013). Use the Sharpest Tool in the Box. Blog posting on

LGBTQ+ Issues

Attain and Maintain Positive Lesbian Self-Identify

The very first CBT article covering an LGBTQ+ issue. Thank you to Haworth Press for making this article available at no charge.

Padesky, C.A. (1989). Attaining and maintaining postive lesbian self-identity: A cognitive therapy approach. Women & Therapy, 8(1,2), 145-156.

The Road Less Traveled:

Padesky’s Thoughts on her career path and early history

Article also includes a brief question and answer segment between Padesky and the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT)

Padesky, C.A. (Oct 2004). The Road Less Traveled: Scientist-Practitioner-Entrepreneur. the Behavior Therapist, 27(7), 156-161.

Mind Over Mood
1st Edition research

Implications for clinical practice

During brief group treatment of depression, different patterns of symptom improvement were noted for Behavioral Activation and Cognitive Restructuring interventions. Core belief interventions were contraindicated.

Hawley, L.,  Padesky, C.A., Hollon, S.D.,  Mancuso, E., Laposa, J.M., Brozina, K., & Segal, Z.V. (2017). Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression Using Mind Over Mood: CBT Skill Use and Differential Symptom Alleviation. Behavior Therapy, 48(1), 29-44.

Mind Over Mood
2nd Edition
Book Review

A physician reviews this best selling CBT self-help book

” …it takes a very motivated, disciplined person to read it and complete the various exercises…. for physicians like me…I  gained a renewed sense of self, one that is mentally and emotionally more flexible to challenge core assumptions and beliefs….”

Gianakos D. Mind Over Mood: Change How You Feel by Changing the Way You Think, Second Edition. Family Medicine 2017;49(2):148-149.


Schema as Self-Prejudice

Learn a metaphor for explaining schema maintenance to clients 

Padesky, C.A. (1990). Schema as Self-Prejudice. International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 6, 6-7.



Schema Change Processes

Illustrates therapy methods for constructing new core beliefs

Padesky, C.A. (1994). Schema Change Processes in Cognitive Therapy, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 1(5), 267-278.

Social Anxiety

Assertive Defense of the Self

A more effective treatment focus for social phobia?
by Christine A. Padesky, PhD

Padesky, C.A. (1997). A More Effective Treatment Focus for Social Phobia? International Cognitive Therapy Newsletter, 11(1), 1-3.

socratic dialogue

Socratic Questioning: Changing Minds or Guiding Discovery?

Covers the 4 stages of socratic questioning. Invited address presented at the 1993 European Congress of Behaviour and Cognitive Therapies, London. 

Padesky, C.A. (1993, September). Socratic questioning: Changing minds or guiding discovery?

socratic dialogue

 Action, dialogue & discovery: Reflections on Socratic Questioning 25 years later

An update on the evolution of Padesky’s model of Socratic Dialogue. Invited Address at the Ninth (2019) World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Berlin, Germany.

Padesky, C.A. (2019, July 18). Action, dialogue & discovery: Reflections on Socratic questioning 25 years later

socratic dialogue

Guided Discovery
unresolved issues

A panel discussion on the integration of collaborative empiricism, specifically Socratic questioning, into cognitive behaviour therapy. Includes the definition of Socratic Dialogue, and whether the purpose of guided discovery using Socratic questioning is to impart information, correct, or dispute patient cognitions. 

Kazantzis, N., Fairburn, C.G., Padesky, C.A., & Reinecke, M. (2014). Unresolved issues regarding the research and practice of cognitive behavior therapy: The case of guided discovery using Socratic questioning. Behaviour Change, 31(1), 1-17.

Strengths-Based CBT
Build Resilience

Build Positive Qualities

Learn a 4-step model to build resilience using the principles of CBT

Padesky, C.A. & Mooney, K.A. (2012) Strengths‐based cognitive–behavioural therapy: A four‐step model to build resilience. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, July-August, 283-290.


Better Supervision

CLINICAL TIP from Christine Padesky. Includes her ground rules and mental flow chart along with a worksheet you can download.

Padesky, C.A. (2014). Better Supervision. Blog posting on


Maximize Workshop Learning

3 Simple Steps to Maximize Workshop Learning

Padesky, C.A. (2013). 3 Simple Steps to Maximize Workshop Learning. Blog posting on


Post Workshop Reflection

Research shows that use of two simple strategies may enhance workshop effectiveness

Bennett-Levy, J. & Padesky, C.A. (2013). Use it or lose it: Post-workshop reflection enhances learning and utilization of CBT skills. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 21(1), 12-19.


Therapist Competence
/ Client Outcomes

Feasibility and effectiveness of training community therapists to deliver cognitive behavior therapy for depression

Simons, A. D., Padesky, C., Montemarano, J., Lewis, C. C., Murakami, J., Reid, M., Smith, D. & Beck, A. T. (2010). Training and dissemination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for depression: A preliminary examination of therapist competence and client outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(5), 751-756. DOI:10.1037/a0020569


Developing Cognitive Therapist Competency: Teaching & Supervision Models

Teaching CBT to therapists. Clinical processes required for competency. Supervision models. Supervision guidelines.

Padesky, C. A. (1996). Developing cognitive therapist competency: Teaching and supervision models. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 266-292). The Guilford Press, NY.


A Cognitive Model of PTSD

The model is consistent with the main clinical features of PTSD, helps explain several apparently puzzling phenomena and provides a framework for treatment by identifying three key targets for change.
— Anke Ehlers & David M. Clark

RESTRICTED USE: The trauma article may be downloaded and printed for personal research and study only. The electronic reprint is provided for this purpose only with permission from Elsevier Science. Visit the Elsevier Science website to learn more about the Behaviour Research and Therapy journal.

Thank You to the Academy of Cognitive and Behavioral Therapies for providing the link to single copies of the Ehlers and Clark (2000) article.

Ehlers, A & Clark, D.M. (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319-345.


Archival Sept 11, 2011

From the Dealing with Disaster Archives. This is information we published shortly after September 11, 2001.

Please note: this is ARCHIVAL INFORMATION and not intended to be the current state of trauma treatment. Archival topics include: dealing with adults, helping children cope with trauma, cease critical incident stress debriefing, post 9/11 letter, and statistics from 9/11

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